I've been meaning to put together something like this for a while. This is just a start. Please refer me to other good resources if you have them!
Nature Focus Articles on Proteomics - This is a nice compilation of relatively recent reviews on the topic. Definitely a nice starting point (here.)
Fundamentals of peptide and protein mass spectrometry (from the Broad Institute, circa 2013!)
Quantitative proteomics from the Broad (video from 2012)
How to get maximum peptide IDs out of a Q Exactive (talk by Tara Schroeder, read by me!)
Introduction to HPLC/UPLC
Introduction to proteomics data processing with Proteome Discoverer:
Older -- but really thorough description of proteomics from the NIAAA. I like this because it starts from the perspective of someone who knows genomics/transcriptomics and goes forward.
This is nice!
The theory behind all mass analyzers by the ChromAcademy!
I'll add more later!